Fogg Behavior Model

References to related work

Social scientists have created many three-part models to describe humans. The first such model I can find is by Lilian Ripple (Chicago) in her 1955 paper “Motivation, Capacity, and Opportunity as Related to the Use of Casework Service: Theoretical Base and Plan of Study.” 

Although Ripple’s model and others may seem similar to mine on the surface (the three words sound similar, right?), a careful reading shows how the models can be quite different. Case in point: In the last five pages of Ripple’s article she includes an appendix that defines what she means by her terms. For example, her use of the word “motivation” is clearly different from how I use that word. (An aside: I admire how Ripple fills five full pages explicating her three terms -- interesting to see!) 

This website will continue to gather references to other models, theories, and frameworks that relate to the Fogg Behavior Model. Because this is a website and not a print publication, my researchers and I can add to this list of related work. Among the most prominent are: 

  • Social Cognitive Theory / Self-Efficacy - Bandura

  • Heuristic-Systematic Model (HSM) - Chaiken, Liberman & Eagly

  • Elaboraton Likelihood Model (ELM) - Petty & Cacciopo

  • Theory of Reasoned Action / Planned Behavior - Fishbein & Ajzen

  • Transtheoretical Model / Stages of Change - Prochaska

  • Resistance & Persuasion - Knowles

  • Cognitive Dissonance - Festinger

  • Hierarchy of Needs - Maslow

  • Attribution Theory - Heider

  • Expectancy Theory - Vroom

  • Self-Determination Theory - Ryan & Deci

  • Cost-Benefit models (various)

  • Learning Theories (Behaviorism) - Watson, Skinner

In comparing my model with others, note how often earlier worked focused on either information processing or attitude change (e.g., HSM, ELM). My model focuses on behavior change. Attitude change and behavior change are different. 

Do you have suggestions for this compilation? If so, you email them to me at my Stanford address.

Dr. BJ Fogg founded the Behavior Design Lab at Stanford University, where he directs research and innovation. In addition, he teaches industry innovators how to use his models and methods in Behavior Design. The purpose of his research and teaching is to help millions of people improve their lives. 

BJ is the author of Persuasive Technology: Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do. He is the co-editor of Mobile Persuasion: 20 Perspectives on the Future of Behavior Change. 

To see more of BJ's work, go to

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